Yeah… I'm serious!

Rock Paper Scissors!

I know all the other trading educators are talking about poker and the lessons it provides in position sizing and trader psychology. I'd love to sound really cool as well and talk about No-Limit Hold 'em, or Aces over Kings, or all manner of other great-sounding terms. But the fact is that I don't know the first thing about poker. And I figure I'm not the only one.

So, here's one for all of us non-poker nerds… a game that everyone should know, which also provides an excellent lesson for traders.

If you're not familiar with Rock Paper Scissors, check out Wikipedia or the World RPS Society website. That's right… there is a worldwide body dedicated to the promotion of this game, the standardisation of its rules and to overseeing the annual International World Championships.

Essentially, Rock Paper Scissors is a game that is widely used for decision making or solving disputes. Two players simultaneously deliver a hand signal representing either a rock (clenched fist), scissors (as per rock, but with the index and middle finger extended representing the two blades of a pair of scissors) or paper (open palm facing down).

  • Rock breaks scissors.
  • Scissors cut paper.
  • Paper covers rock.

Typically, in an informal setting the winner will be determined by the best out of three throws, although you may from time to time see a single throw, sudden-death game. If you aspire to attending the World RPS championships, the winner is determined by the best out of three sets, each set being won by the best out of three throws.

If you're confused, don't worry – personal Rock Paper Scissors trainers are available.

So, how does Rock Paper Scissors relate to trading?

Let's first examine the nature of the game. On the surface the result of each game appears to be random. Basically a coin toss, but with three outcomes instead of two – win, lose or draw. On closer examination though you'll recognize that the reality is much different. Unlike a coin toss, the outcome of each game depends on decisions made by the human participants.

And human decision making is NEVER random, particularly when there are high stakes involved.

Your decision about whether to throw rock, paper or scissors, will largely be influenced by your beliefs about your competitors decision. If you know what they're likely to throw, you'll adjust your throw to ensure it beats their choice.

A great example of this is the following exchange between Lisa and Bart in The Simpsons episode #9F16.

  • Lisa: "Look, there's only one way to settle this. Rock Paper Scissors."
  • Lisa's thought: "Poor predictable Bart. Always takes rock."
  • Bart's thought: "Good old rock. Nothing beats that."
  • Bart's throw: Rock
  • Lisa's throw: Paper
  • Bart: "D'oh!"

The result in this example is far from random. Lisa has managed to win the game through awareness of her opponent's belief systems.

In fact, there appears to be a little bit of Bart Simpson in all of us.

The World RPS Society reports statistics from a number of Rock Paper Scissors sources. The one providing the largest sample comes from the Roshambull application on Facebook, which at the time of reporting had logged over 10 million throws from over 1.6 million games. Statistics in this sample show Rock being thrown 36% of the time as opposed to paper 30% and scissors 34%. It appears that rock is more often the number one choice of Rock Paper Scissors competitors.

If you doubt that psychology plays such a great role in Rock Paper Scissors, schedule a high stakes game against a family member or friend. Something harmless of course, but high stakes – maybe the loser has to wash the winners car each fortnight for the next 12 months. You'll find that your throws are not random at all, but rather you're trying desperately to anticipate your opponents move, exploiting any knowledge you have about the way your opponent thinks.

Before you schedule this game though, let's have a quick look at how you can gain an edge at Rock Paper Scissors.

Firstly, we know from the above studies that the distribution is skewed slightly in favour of rock. So, if we're playing against a novice, the initial edge is available through throwing paper, as paper covers rock. It's a very slight edge, but it's still an edge.

Of course, the strategy will have to change against someone with a little more experience, or in fact anyone who recognises the non-random nature of the game. These people will be expecting that we'll throw paper, in order to beat their 'obvious' rock. As a result, they're more likely to throw scissors in an attempt to beat our paper. So, instead of paper, we'll throw rock to beat their scissors.

It's all about staying one step ahead of your opponents thought processes.

There's more… watch out for two throws in a row of the same type. People are very wary of being too predictable. If your competitor has produced two throws in a row exactly the same, their next throw is statistically more likely to differ. As an example, let's say they've had two rocks in a row. Not wanting to be too predictable, they'll most likely throw either paper or scissors on the third throw. So, your choice should be scissors, as it'll win against their paper, or draw against their scissors.

Another great option is to suggest a throw to your opponent. Imagine your reaction if we were competing and I said to you, "It's so easy to read you – your next throw is going to be paper." Subconsciously I've implanted in you a desire to avoid paper. You don't want to be predictable, so you'll be more likely to throw either rock or scissors. This makes my choice easier. The edge for me is in throwing rock as it will beat your scissors, or worst-case tie against your rock.

The opposite of this is to state your own intentions before throwing. I could for example say "I'm going to smash you on this final one. Get ready for my rock." The last thing you'd expect now is for me to actually be so stupid as to throw a rock. So you'd be expecting me to throw paper or scissors, leading to your likely choice being scissors in order to get a win or draw. So, I simply give the throw I mentioned – rock – beating your scissors.

Love it!

Of course, it's not all that simple. The World RPS Society website has a strategy guide for sale if you're interested in exploring this further. Remember though, you are playing against humans. Not only are their decisions not random, but they're also often irrational. So, although you might have an edge, you're still playing over a very small sample of games. Be sure to never bet what you can't afford to lose.

So, how is this a trading analogy?

Novices mistakenly think that Rock Paper Scissors is a game of chance.

As we've seen though, Rock Paper Scissors is actually a game of skill and strategy in which success comes from being able to read your opponent, adapting your game to profit from their likely actions. Success is not guaranteed in any particular throw, but if you can successfully get within the mind of your opponent you'll gain an edge which will see you to victory over a series of throws.

Likewise with trading…

Some novices believe it's a game of fundamentals. They'll study the company reports, PE ratios, dividend yields, or wider economic factors such as the retail sales or payroll figures. They aim to find a stock or instrument which is valued differently from what they believe is its true fundamental value. They'll then enter expecting the fundamental factors to push price to their perceived 'correct' value.

Other novices believe it's a game of technicals. They'll use indicators, which are simply a derivative of price, in an attempt to predict future price movement. As price moves in a particular direction the indicators will follow, eventually triggering our novice trader into the market. There is rarely any thought as to what caused the initial price movement, or whether or not the context of the current market supports continued price movement. They operate simply on hope, that the price movement which triggered them into the trade will continue in the same direction.

In fact, neither is correct. Trading is not a game of fundamental or technical analysis.

Like Rock Paper Scissors, trading is a game of understanding people and how they make decisions.

True, your competitor is not one individual. Rather, you trade against the collective market which is made up of millions of other traders and investors all making individual buy and sell decisions.

Price moves in response to the net order flow that results from all these individual buy and sell decisions. If the net order flow is bullish, price will rise. If the net order flow is bearish, price will fall. It's as simple as that. The fundamentals don't move price. They technicals don't move price. Order flow moves price.

So, the game of trading is one of identifying those areas where a significant number of traders are going to feel compelled to take action and then entering before they enter. It doesn't matter whether you use fundamentals or technicals or any other form of analysis. If you can achieve this on a consistent basis, you've got yourself an edge.

Know what other traders are thinking – and you can position yourself to profit from their actions.

There are numerous ways of achieving this. A simple example is the use of chart pattern failures. The more obvious the chart pattern, the better. A technically perfect head and shoulders pattern will produce a large order flow short as price breaks the neckline. But should that pattern fail there will be an even greater order flow long, as the bears scramble to cover their losses. Knowing how traders will act at the point of pattern failure, I can position myself to enter long at this point, to exploit the increase in bullish order flow.

So, examine your trading approach. Whether it's based on fundamental or technical or quantitative or astrological or any other means of analysis, ensure you consider the fact that the market exists because traders make trading decisions. It's not about the technicals or fundamentals. It's about knowing what your competitor is thinking.

Like Rock Paper Scissors, if you know the likely decisions and actions of your competitor, you'll know how to position yourself for a higher probability of success.

Lance Beggs


(c) Copyright 2009. Lance Beggs. All Rights Reserved.


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  1. Hello Lance,
    really it is amazing article shown the reality of trading game , thank you lance for your sharing your experience.
    Best regards


      1. Very insightful article I must Lance.
        Really put things into perspective from a psychological view point.
        Thank you

      2. Comparing trading with rock paper scissors and the way need to think about it explained in clear way.

  2. Lance,
    It was great speaking with you. This was a great read. This one article gives such great insight into trading. I really believe your philosophy has wide ranging applications. Thank you for sharing your thoughts.
    Best Regards,

  3. Hey Lance! This was such an amazing read. I’ve never even thought of considering how I can really take advantage of what other traders are thinking and profit off of their decisions. I’m a salesman who goes into a lot of effort to find out what my potential customers are thinking in order to bring in business. So your analogy fits my personality perfectly. Where can I find more information about this? Do you have other articles that deal with this in length? What books on this topic do u recommend?

    1. Thanks Watson! I’m glad you enjoyed the Rock Paper Scissors article. I think it’s been maybe seven years since I wrote that one and it’s still my favourite.

      The “salesman” analogy is perfect. The strategy used to effect a sale should be adapted to suit the mindset and thoughts of the prospect. I might have to “borrow” that idea for future articles. 🙂

      Q. Do you have other articles that deal with this in length?

      Mostly just with implementation of the idea rather than theory or concept.

      Go to the blog page –

      On the right hand side you’ll find a Tag list. Click on Metagame.

      This will display all articles which touch on the ideas of metagaming in some way, even if just minor.

      Q. What books on this topic do u recommend?

      There really is not a lot. Obviously my first recommendation will have to be my own –

      The concept is discussed in greater length in the early stages and then goes on to form the foundation of the full strategy which is presented in the latter stages of the ebook series.

      Beyond my work, there really is not a lot.

      You can sense this understanding within the writing of many “real” traders. But it’s not something they talk about often.

      One who does more than most is probably Jason Alan Jankovsky. I like his books. Check them out.

      All the best,

      1. I’m really glad to see you mention the name of Jason Alan Jankovsky, Jason is another author I like very much, and he understands “what exactly the future game is ” as much as you do, I learned a lot from you ,Thanks!

        1. Thanks Pyn,
          Yes, It was a big loss to the trading world when Jason Alan Jankovsky decided to retire from education. I’m hopeful that one day he’ll return.

  4. Hi Lance,
    I enjoyed reading this piece. But I have questions.
    You said, “the technical don’t move price. Order flow moves price.”
    Isn’t the order flow result of people making decision based on analysis of chart pattern? Let’s take same example of Head and shoulder pattern above. In this case, people are going to go short thinking breakout of price below neckline and since large number of people seeing the same pattern, it’ll create more order flow as in bearish trend. So isn’t that order flow is the result of pattern or TA? It’s only when masses saw pattern forming they decide to make decision and this creating order flow.

    Hope I’m clear of what I’m trying to say!

    Keep posting good stuff.


    1. Hi Vishal,

      Great question.

      Q. Isn’t the order flow result of people making decision based on analysis of chart pattern?

      The orderflow is a result of all the traders executing in that marketplace, regardless of their timeframe, strategy or methods of analysis. Some of this will include those looking on your same timeframe and via same methods, who may base decisions on patterns like this. Others have completely different methods.

      Let’s consider the example you’ve used of price breaking down from the neckline of a H&S pattern. Who is on the other side of your trade as you’re entering SHORT on a break? Someone is there. You can’t sell if there is no-one buying. So this alone indicates that the marketplace comprises many people with numerous competing methods of reading the market and price action. And without even considering those using fundamentals or quant or hedging strategies, even just basic standard TA traders may have opposing views. Some like to fade breakouts rather than go with them. And some, on other timeframes, will see a completely different picture.

      There are people on both sides. With opposite views. Which way price ultimately goes depends upon which side’s orderflow overwhelms the other side.

      It may well be that the break of the pattern results in a momentum drive lower. It also may not (many pattern breaks fail).

      The outcome depends upon the orderflow. And it is a net result of the decisions and actions of ALL market participants. Not just those who see the market in the same way as you.

      Your job then is to trade in places where price will not only give you this (potential) chart-based short-term orderflow surge to get the trade started, but also beyond that, in good contextual locations that suggest such a move will also attract wider participation from other traders operating in other timeframes and other methods of analysis. Context is the key!

  5. This is one of the best trading article I’ve ever read. Since two years ago I’ve been trading just taking into account the price movement without thinking about the underlying reality. But I’m starting to see this game with other eyes, and I really like it.
    I recently bought the YTC Price Action books and hoping to get to the next step as trader.
    So thanks!

    1. Thanks Sergio,

      We’re coming up on 9 years since this article. And it’s still my favourite. 🙂

      I’m glad you enjoyed it.

      All the best of luck with your trading,

  6. Sir
    Gr8 learning lessons from you , focus on reality
    My question is , Is there anything called fake price action or real price action in the entire price action scheme of things .
    can we detect those fake move by big players , so as to remain in the trade or remian sidelines till the reality presents itself.
    Thanks and regards

    1. Hi Kaushik,

      There are no fake moves (assuming you’re operating through a proper exchange and not a bucket shop).

      All moves are a result of the orderflow. That is, the actual orders executing on the bid and ask side, as a result of the decisions and actions of all market participants.

      But if you mean will there be traps, probes, fakeouts, retests and all other manner of other movement to cause you a challenge. Then yes, there definitely will be.

      It’s the normal nature of price movement when all these participants join in a process of price discovery.

      Can these moves be seen prior to occurring? Sometimes. More important though is recognising when they do actually occur. And adapting tactics quickly to (a) minimise damage if you find yourself trapped, and/or (b) exploit the opportunity for gain if at all possible.

      Best of luck,

  7. You are an amazing mentor. Apart from this write up, I m reading your just bought books,YTC . These books have changed my way how I view trading completely.

    Thanks a lot for sharing Your knowledge & experience with us.

    1. Hi Dharmesh,
      Thank you for your kind words. I am pleased you’ve found this old Rock Paper Scissors article. The message in this article is one of the primary concepts underlying everything I do to identify and capture edge in the markets. Make sure you understood it. And please email me if you have any questions as you read through the YTC Price Action Trader.

  8. Hey Lance,
    This Jai from India. After coming to the real coach, I don’t think that I need to go somewhere else. I am new for your site and your book but understanding and enjoying the theme. This is far differ from what everyone tells & that’s why this is interesting.

    As I am in a learning stage, will come back to you as soon as I would have a Question.

    Thanks for being there for us!
    God Bless You Coach!

  9. Mr.Lance, it was an amazing article. Every time I check your blog, I learn tons of new things and fill lots of my trading’s bugs.
    Thank you for sharing this amazing idea and perspective with us.


  10. I am not surprised. I’m immersing myself with your YTC Price Action Trader course which I recently bought. Only approx 25% on Vol 2 but I’ve learnt so much. Even had a successfully trade today using this new-found knowledge.
    Thanks once more. Glad I could found you

  11. i have no words to thankyou! i has been around 9 month in my trading career,before 2 month i somehow find your course and it completely change my view on market i started to look market differently ,i am in love with your blog i spend my time reading it and every time it exict and amaze me .thankyou !

    1. Thank you Rohit. If there is one goal I want out of my site it is to help people to look at the market in better ways. So your comment really means a lot. Thank you so much. And best of luck with your trading.

  12. Dear kind lance,
    It was an unbelievably thoughtful perspective to the RPS game and as well the market balance. I always was reading and hearing about manipulation in prices and the uncountable new ways to predict the price movements.
    I’d like to appreciate you for washing my eyes from that faulty vision. I like the way you look at matters and of course it makes sense.

    1. Hi Mohammad,

      Thank you for your feedback. I’m really pleased to have been a positive part of your trading journey. I wish you the best of luck in adding these new insights to your trading plan.


  13. This is indeed one of my favourite trading psychology analysis. The other one being Plato’s Cave.
    After nearly a year away from trading I am back. This time without the distraction of a full-time corporate job so I’ve no choice but to succeed at this game. It has taken me a while to grasp those concepts and engrain them into my subconscious mind but I believe I am making steady progress. I’ve enrolled in a Funded Program trading Forex this week and hopefully should pass the evaluation stage in the next 30 days.
    Thanks Lance for your support. I must admit there is no one in the trading community I value more

  14. Hi
    thanks for your controversial article really appreciate it
    there is just one thing that is not clear for me that is considering the role of market makers
    you mentioned that price flows as a result of traders decision but big hands move the market and read their card is tough one
    how can we be prepared and aware of their moves and anticipate them?

    1. Market makers and “big hands” are completely different players with completely different impacts upon the market. And those larger players who can move the market are typically operating on different time scales to us. We trade the trend structure on our trading timeframe. If larger players are moving the market then this movement will become evident in the trend structure and the way price behaves within that structure. That is what we adapt to. We don’t need to know the intent of the other participants. Price behaviour and structure give clues and that is the focus of our analysis.

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